The words signs, sines sound the same but have different meanings and spellings. Why do signs, sines sound the same even though they are completely different words?
The answer is simple: signs, sines are homophones of the English language.
Plural form of sign.
Third-person singular simple present indicative form of sign.
Plural form of sine.
Definitions from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License and Wordnik.
Homophones (literally "same sound") are usually defined as words that share the same pronunciation, regardless of how they are spelled.